Understanding the Menstrual PhasesThe menstrual process is divided into four phases, namely:
In this phase, the inner lining of the uterus (endometrium), which contains blood, cells of the uterine wall, and mucus, will decay and pass through the vagina. This phase starts from the first day of the menstrual cycle and can last for 4 to 6 days. In this phase, women will usually feel pain in the lower abdomen and back because the uterus to contract to help shed the endometrium.
This phase lasts from the first day of menstruation to enter the ovulation phase. In this phase, the ovary will produce follicles that contain eggs. The growth of ovarian follicles causes the endometrium to thicken. This phase usually occurs on the 10th day of 28 days in a menstrual cycle. The duration of time spent in this phase determines how long a woman's menstrual cycle lasts.
In the ovulation phase, the follicles produced by the ovaries release eggs to be fertilized. A mature egg will move to the fallopian tube and stick to the uterus. This egg cell only lasts for 24 hours. If it is not fertilized, the egg will die. But if the egg meets the sperm and is fertilized, the ovulation phase will mark a woman's fertile period. Ovulation usually occurs about two weeks before the next menstrual cycle begins.
After the ovulation phase, follicles that have ruptured and ejected eggs will form the corpus luteum in this phase. The corpus luteum will trigger an increase in the hormone progesterone to thicken the lining of the uterine lining. This phase is also known as the premenstrual phase. This phase is generally marked by a number of symptoms, such as enlarged breasts, pimples, the body feels weak, becomes irritable or emotional.
Menstrual Hormones That AffectThe menstrual process is influenced by several hormones, including:
The hormone estrogen plays an important role in the physical formation and female reproductive organs, for example in breast growth, hair around the sex organs, producing eggs in the ovaries, and regulating the menstrual cycle. Estrogen will increase in the ovulation phase and decrease in the luteal phase.
One of the functions of the hormone progesterone is to stimulate the lining of the uterine lining to thicken and receive eggs that are ready to be fertilized. This hormone level is very low in the follicular phase and will experience an increase in the luteal phase. This hormone is produced after passing through the ovulation phase.
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (gonadotrophin-releasing hormone / GnRh)
This hormone is produced in the brain and functions to stimulate the body to produce follicle stimulating hormone and lutein hormone.
Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
This hormone plays a role in egg production. In the menstrual cycle, levels of this hormone will increase before the ovulation phase.
Luteinizing hormone (LH)
This hormone functions to stimulate the ovaries to release eggs during ovulation. If the egg meets the sperm and is fertilized, this hormone will stimulate the corpus luteum to produce progesterone.